Luiza

Hot and cold Katy Perry


CHANGE/ KNOW/UP/LIKE/BORING/DOCTOR/ BREAK UP

You _______your mind
Like a girl changes clothes
Yeah you, PMS
Like a bitch
I would know
And you overthink
Always speak
Cryptically
I should _________
That you’re no good for me

Cause you’re hot then you’re cold
You’re yes then you’re no
You’re in and you’re out
You’re _____ and you’re down
You’re wrong when it’s right
It’s black and it’s white
We fight, we break up
We kiss, we make up
You, You don’t really want to stay, no
You, but you don’t really want to go-o
You’re hot then you’re cold
You’re yes then you’re no
You’re in and you’re out
You’re ____ and you’re down

We used to be
Just _____ twins
So in sync
The same energy
Now’s a dead battery
Used to laugh bout nothing
Now your plain _________

I should know that
you’re not gonna change

Cause you’re hot then you’re cold
You’re yes then you’re no
You’re in and you’re out
You’re ___ and you’re down
You’re wrong when it’s right
It’s black and it’s white
We fight, we ______
We kiss, we make up
You, You don’t really want to stay, no
You, but you don’t really want to go-o
You’re hot then you’re cold
You’re yes then you’re no
You’re in and you’re out
You’re ___ and you’re down

Someone call the _______
Got a case of a love bi-polar
Stuck on a roller coaster
Can’t get off this ride

You ______ your mind
Like a girl changes clothes

Cause you’re hot then you’re cold
You’re yes then you’re no
You’re in then you’re out
You’re ______ then you’re down
You’re wrong when it’s right
It’s black and it’s white
We fight, we break up
We kiss, we make up
You’re hot then you’re cold
You’re yes then you’re no
You’re in then you’re out
You’re ____ then you’re down
You’re wrong when it’s right
It’s black and it’s white
We fight, we ____________
We kiss, we make up
(you) You don’t really want to stay, no
(but you) But you don’t really want to go-o
You’re hot then you’re cold
You’re yes then you’re no
You’re in then you’re out
You’re ______ then you’re down, down…

FUTURO

In inglese esistono diverse forme verbali per esprimersi nel futuro. È importante ricordare che il futuro non esprime semplicemente il momento in cui si è verificato un evento o si è svolta un’azione. Ovviamente tutti i tempi verbali al “futuro” si riferiscono sempre a un momento “successivo al presente”; tuttavia, il tempo prescelto potrebbe anche esprimere la nostra attitudine verso tale evento futuro.

Tutte queste idee si esprimono utilizzando una forma verbale al futuro diversa.

SIMPLE FUTURE

Il simple future si riferisce ad azioni che accadranno in un tempo futuro ed esprime in modo neutro fatti o certezze.

Il simple future si usa:

  • Per predire un evento futuro:
    It will rain tomorrow.
  • Per esprimere una decisione spontanea, con i pronomi I o we:
    I’ll pay for the tickets by credit card.
  • Quando ci si propone di fare qualcosa: I’ll do the washing-up.
    He’ll carry your bag for you.
  • Alla forma negativa, per esprimere la mancanza di volontà di fare qualcosa:
    The baby won’t eat his soup.
    won’t leave until I’ve seen the manager!
  • Alla forma interrogativa con shall, quando ci si offre di fare qualcosa:
    Shall I open the window?
  • Alla forma interrogativa con we shall, per proporre qualcosa:
    Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
  • Alla forma interrogativa con I e shall, per chiedere un consiglio o istruzioni:
    What shall I tell the boss about this money?
  • Con you, per impartire ordini:
    You will do exactly as I say.
  • Con you alla forma interrogativa, per fare un invito:
    Will you come to the dance with me?
    Will you marry me?

Nota: L’inglese moderno preferisce l’uso di willshallShall si usa principalmente con Iweper fare un’offerta o dare un suggerimento, oppure per chiedere un consiglio (vedere gli esempi qui sopra). Con gli altri pronomi (you, he, she, they) shall viene usato solo in poesia o nell’inglese letterario, per esempio “With rings on her fingers and bells on her toes, She shall have music wherever she goes.”

Il simple future è composto da due elementi: will / shall + la forma base del verbo principale.

La forma it will non viene generalmente contratta.

IL FUTURE CONTINUOUS

Il future continuous è composto da due elementi:
il simple future del verbo to be + il participio presente (forma base + ing)

Il future continuous si riferisce a un’azione o a un evento che sarà in corso di svolgimento nel futuro. Il future continuous viene utilizzato per esprimere diversi concetti.

Il future continuous per proiettarsi nel futuro.

  • This time next week I will be sun-bathing in Bali.
  • By Christmas I will be skiing like a pro.
  • Just think, next Monday you will be working in your new job.

Il future continuous per fare supposizioni su ciò che accadrà nel futuro.

  • He’ll be coming to the meeting, I expect.
  • I guess you’ll be feeling thirsty after working in the sun.
  • You’ll be missing the sunshine once you’re back in England.

Nelle frasi interrogative, il future continuous per chiedere, in modo molto educato, un’informazione sul futuro.

  • Will you be bringing your friend to the pub tonight?
  • Will Jim be coming with us?
  • Will she be going to the party tonight?
  • Will I be sleeping in this room?

Il future continuous per parlare di eventi continuativi che si prevede si verificheranno nel futuro.

  • I’ll be seeing Jim at the conference next week.
  • When he is in Australia he will be staying with friends.
  • I’ll be eating with Jane this evening so I can tell her.

Usato con still, il future continuous per parlare di eventi già in corso e che si prevede continueranno per un determinato periodo di tempo nel futuro.

  • In an hour I’ll still be ironing my clothes.
  • Tomorrow he’ll still be suffering from his cold.
  • Next year will she still be wearing a size six?
  • Won’t stock prices still be falling in the morning?
  • Unfortunately, sea levels will still be rising in 20 years

FUTURE PERFECT

Il future perfect è composto da due elementi:
il futuro semplice del verbo to have (will have) + il participio passato del verbo principale

Il future perfect esprime un’azione completata nel futuro. Quando si usa questo tempo, ci si proietta nel futuro e si parla di un’azione che sarà stata completata in un momento futuro rispetto al momento presente. Il future perfect viene spesso usato con espressioni di tempo

  • I will have been here for six months on June 23rd.
  • By the time you read this I will have left.
  • You will have finished your report by this time next week.
  • Won’t they have arrived by 5:00?
  • Will you have eaten when I pick you up?

IL FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Il future perfect continuous è composto da due elementi: 
il future perfect del verbo to be (will have been) + il participio presente del verbo principale (forma base + ing)

Come per il future perfect simple, questo tempo si usa per parlare di un’azione completata nel futuro. Si riferisce ad eventi o azioni non completate in un tempo compreso tra il momento attuale e un futuro non precisato. Viene spesso usato con espressioni di tempo.

  • I will have been waiting here for three hours by six o’clock.
  • By 2001 I will have been living in London for sixteen years.
  • When I finish this course, I will have been learning English for twenty years.
  • Next year I will have been working here for four years.
  • When I come at 6:00, will you have been practicing long?

SIMPLE PAST

Il simple past si usa per parlare di azioni concluse che si sono svolte nel passato. La durata dell’azione è irrilevante. L’azione può essersi svolta in un passato prossimo o remoto.

  • John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
  • My father died last year.
  • He lived in Fiji in 1976.
  • We crossed the Channel yesterday.

Il simple past si utilizza sempre per indicare in che momento si è verificato un avvenimento; pertanto, questo tempo è sempre associato a un determinato tipo di espressioni temporali.

  • frequenzaoften, sometimes, always
    sometimes walked home at lunchtime.
    often brought my lunch to school.
  • un momento precisolast week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago
    We saw a good film last week.
    Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
    She finished her work atseven o’clock
    went to the theatre last night
  • un momento non preciso: the other day, ages ago, a long time ago People lived in caves a long time ago.
    She played the piano when she was a child.

Nota: la parola ago è un termine utile per esprimere la distanza nel passato. Si colloca dopo il periodo di tempo: a week ago, three years ago, a minute ago.

Attenzione: Il simple past in inglese può sembrare simile al passato remoto in italiano, ma non sempre il significato è lo stesso.

Il Simple Past dei verbi regolari si forma con verbo+ ed

AFFERMATIVA dei verbi to be, to have, to do
  • was in Japan lastyear
  • She had a headache yesterday.
  • We did our homework last night.
NEGATIVA E INTERROGATIVA

Le forme negativa e interrogativa al simple past di to do, in quanto verbo semplice, si formano usando l’ausiliare to do, ad esempio: We didn’t do our homework last night.
La forma negativa di have al simple past si forma solitamente con l’ausiliare do, ma talvolta si aggiunge semplicemente not o la contrazione n’t.

La forma interrogativa di have al simple past si forma solitamente con l’ausiliare do.

  • They weren’t in Rio last summer.
  • We didn’t have any money.
  • We didn’t have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • We didn’t do our exercises this morning.
  • Were they in Iceland last January?
  • Did you have a bicycle when you were young?
  • Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?

Nota: Le forme negativa e interrogativa di tutti i verbi al simple past si formano sempre con l’ausiliare did.

SIMPLE PAST E I VERBI IRREGOLARI

Alcuni vebri sono irregolari al simple past. Ecco un elenco dei più comuni.

TO GO
  • He went to a club last night.
  • Did he go to the cinema last night?
  • He didn’t go to bed early last night.
TO GIVE
  • We gave her a doll for her birthday.
  • They didn’t give John their new address.
  • Did Barry give you my passport?
TO COME
  • My parents came to visit me last July.
  • We didn’t come because it was raining.
  • Did he come to your party last week?

PAST CONTINUOUS

Il past continuous si usa per descrivere azioni o eventi iniziati nel passato ma che continuano e hanno conseguenze nel presente. In altre parole, esprime un’azione che è percepita come incompleta o ancora in corso nel passato.

Viene utilizzato:

  • spesso, per descrivere il contesto di un racconto scritto al passato, per esempio: “The sun was shining and the birds were singing as the elephant came out of the jungle. The other animals were relaxing in the shade of the trees, but the elephant moved very quickly. She was looking for her baby, and she didn’t notice the hunter who was watching her through his binoculars. When the shot rang out, she was running towards the river…”
  • per descrivere un’azione non completata che è stata interrotta dal verificarsi di un altro evento o azione, per esempio: “I was having a beautiful dream when the alarm clock rang.”
  • per esprimere un cambiamento di opinione, ad esempio: “I was going to spend the day at the beach but I’ve decided to get my homework done instead.”
  • con wonder, per formulare una domanda in modo estremamente educato: per esempio: “I was wondering if you could baby-sit for me tonight.”
  • Caroline was skiing when she broke her leg.
  • When we arrived he was having a bath.
  • When the fire started I was watching television.

Nota: con i verbi che non vengono solitamente usati alla forma progressiva, si utilizza il simple past.

Il past continuous di qualsiasi verbo si compone di due parti: il passato del verbo “to be” (was/were) e la forma base del verbo principale + ing

PRESENT PERFECT

Il present perfect di qualsiasi verbo si compone di due parti: la voce corretta dell’ausiliare to have (al presente) + il participio passato del verbo principale. Il participio passato di un verbo regolare si compone di forma base + ed, ad esempio played, arrived, looked. Molti verbi formano il participio passato in modo irregolare: l’elenco completo è riportato nella tavola dei verbi irregolari nella sezione Verbi.

Il present perfect esprime un collegamento tra il presente e il passato. L’azione si svolge in un momento non precisato del passato. Chi parla è più interessato al risultato dell’azione che all’azione in sé.

ATTENZIONE! In italiano il present perfect viene spesso confuso con il passato prossimo; in realtà i due tempi verbali NON hanno lo stesso significato.

IL “PRESENT PERFECT” SI USA PER DESCRIVERE
  • Un’azione o una situazione iniziata nel passato che continua nel presente. have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= e ci vivo ancora.)
  • Un’azione eseguita per un periodo di tempo è non ancora terminata. She has been to the cinema twice this week (= e la settimana non è ancora finita.)
  • Un’azione ripetuta in un periodo non definito di tempo fra passato e presente. We have visited Portugal several times.
  • Un’azione che si è appena conclusa, espressa con l’avverbio justhave just finished my work.
  • Un’azione svolta in un tempo irrilevante. He has read ‘War and Peace’. (= ci interessa il risultato, cioè che abbia letto il libro.)

Nota: Per dare o richiedere una precisione su quando, dove o chi ha svolto un’azione, si deve usare il simple past. Consultare la pagina su come scegliere tra il simple past e il present perfect.

AZIONE COMINCIATA NEL PASSATO CHE CONTINUA NEL PRESENTE
  • They haven’t lived here for years.
  • She has worked in the bank for five years.
  • We have had the same car for ten years.
  • Have you played the piano since you were a child?
QUANDO IL TEMPO ESPRESSO NELLA FRASE NON È ANCORA TERMINATO
  • I have worked hard this week.
  • It has rained a lot this year.
  • We haven’t seen her today.
AZIONE RIPETUTA IN UN MOMENTO NON PRECISATO FRA IL PASSATO E IL PRESENTE.
  • They have seen that film six times
  • It has happened several times already.
  • She has visited them frequently.
  • We have eaten at that restaurant many times.
AZIONE APPENA TERMINATA (+JUST)
  • Have you just finished work?
  • have just eaten.
  • We have just seen her.
  • Has he just left?
QUANDO IL TEMPO ESATTO DELL’AZIONE NON È IMPORTANTE O CONOSCIUTO
  • Someone has eaten my soup!
  • Have you seen ‘Gone with the Wind’?
  • She’s studied Japanese, Russian, and English.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Il present perfect continuous è composto da due elementi: il present perfect del verbo to be (have/has been) e il participio presente del verbo principale (forma base + ing).

Affermativa: She has been / She’s been running.
Negativa: She hasn’t been running.
Interrogativa : Has she been running?
Interrogativa negativa: Hasn’t she been running?

Il present perfect continuous si riferisce a un periodo non definito del passato compreso tra ‘prima di adesso’ e ‘adesso’. La persona che parla sta pensando a qualcosa che è stato iniziato, ma che forse non è ancora terminato, in quel determinato periodo di tempo. La persona è interessata sia al processo che al risultato; il processo dell’azione potrebbe essere ancora in corso o potrebbe essersi appena completato.

AZIONI INIZIATE NEL PASSATO E CHE CONTINUANO NEL PRESENTE

She has been waiting for you all day (= e sta ancora aspettando).
I’ve been working on this report since eight o’clock this morning (= e non l’ho ancora terminato).
They have been travelling since last October (= e non sono ancora tornati a casa).

AZIONI APPENA COMPLETATE, MA QUELLO CHE INTERESSA È IL RISULTATO

She has been cooking since last night (= e il cibo sulla tavola ha un aspetto delizioso).
It’s been raining (= le strade sono ancora bagnate).
Someone’s been eating my chips (= e ne è sparita la metà).

 

 

PAST PERFECT

Il past perfect definisce un tempo precedente a un altro tempo nel passato. Si usa per chiarire che un evento si è verificato prima di un altro evento nel passato. Non è importante quale evento viene riportato per primo nella frase: il tempo del verbo chiarisce cosa è successo prima.

In inglese, il past perfect si compone di due elementi: il past simple del verbo to have (had) + il participio passato del verbo principale.

PAST PERFECT + JUST

Just si usa con il past perfect per riferirsi a un evento che si è verificato appena prima del momento in cui si sta parlando, ad esempio:

  • The train had just left when I arrived at the station.
  • She had just left the room when the police arrived.
  • had just put the washing out when it started to rain.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Il past perfect continuous corrisponde al present perfect continuous, ma si riferisce a un tempo anteriore “al momento attuale’. Come avviene per il present perfect continuous, quello che interessa è il processo con cui si svolge un’azione.

  • Had you been waiting long before the taxi arrived?
  • We had been trying to open the door for five minutes when Jane found her key.
  • It had been raining hard for several hours and the streets were very wet.
  • Her friends had been thinking of calling the police when she walked in.

Questo tempo si usa anche nel discorso indiretto e corrisponde al past simple continuous e al present perfect continuous nel discorso diretto:

  • Jane said, “I have been gardening all afternoon.” = Jane said she had been gardening all afternoon.
  • When the police questioned him, John said, “I was working late in the office that night.” = When the police questioned him, John told them he had been working late in the office that night.

Il past perfect continuous si compone di due elementi: il past perfect del verbo to be (=had been) + il participio presente (forma base + ing).

SIMPLE PAST

Il simple past si usa per parlare di azioni concluse che si sono svolte nel passato. La durata dell’azione è irrilevante. L’azione può essersi svolta in un passato prossimo o remoto.

  • John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
  • My father died last year.
  • He lived in Fiji in 1976.
  • We crossed the Channel yesterday.

Il simple past si utilizza sempre per indicare in che momento si è verificato un avvenimento; pertanto, questo tempo è sempre associato a un determinato tipo di espressioni temporali.

  • frequenzaoften, sometimes, always
    sometimes walked home at lunchtime.
    often brought my lunch to school.
  • un momento precisolast week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago
    We saw a good film last week.
    Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
    She finished her work atseven o’clock
    went to the theatre last night
  • un momento non preciso: the other day, ages ago, a long time ago People lived in caves a long time ago.
    She played the piano when she was a child.

Nota: la parola ago è un termine utile per esprimere la distanza nel passato. Si colloca dopo il periodo di tempo: a week ago, three years ago, a minute ago.

Attenzione: Il simple past in inglese può sembrare simile al passato remoto in italiano, ma non sempre il significato è lo stesso.

Il Simple Past dei verbi regolari si forma con verbo+ ed

AFFERMATIVA dei verbi to be, to have, to do
  • was in Japan lastyear
  • She had a headache yesterday.
  • We did our homework last night.
NEGATIVA E INTERROGATIVA

Le forme negativa e interrogativa al simple past di to do, in quanto verbo semplice, si formano usando l’ausiliare to do, ad esempio: We didn’t do our homework last night.
La forma negativa di have al simple past si forma solitamente con l’ausiliare do, ma talvolta si aggiunge semplicemente not o la contrazione n’t.

La forma interrogativa di have al simple past si forma solitamente con l’ausiliare do.

  • They weren’t in Rio last summer.
  • We didn’t have any money.
  • We didn’t have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • We didn’t do our exercises this morning.
  • Were they in Iceland last January?
  • Did you have a bicycle when you were young?
  • Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?

Nota: Le forme negativa e interrogativa di tutti i verbi al simple past si formano sempre con l’ausiliare did.

SIMPLE PAST E I VERBI IRREGOLARI

Alcuni vebri sono irregolari al simple past. Ecco un elenco dei più comuni.

TO GO
  • He went to a club last night.
  • Did he go to the cinema last night?
  • He didn’t go to bed early last night.
TO GIVE
  • We gave her a doll for her birthday.
  • They didn’t give John their new address.
  • Did Barry give you my passport?
TO COME
  • My parents came to visit me last July.
  • We didn’t come because it was raining.
  • Did he come to your party last week?

PAST CONTINUOUS

Il past continuous si usa per descrivere azioni o eventi iniziati nel passato ma che continuano e hanno conseguenze nel presente. In altre parole, esprime un’azione che è percepita come incompleta o ancora in corso nel passato.

Viene utilizzato:

  • spesso, per descrivere il contesto di un racconto scritto al passato, per esempio: “The sun was shining and the birds were singing as the elephant came out of the jungle. The other animals were relaxing in the shade of the trees, but the elephant moved very quickly. She was looking for her baby, and she didn’t notice the hunter who was watching her through his binoculars. When the shot rang out, she was running towards the river…”
  • per descrivere un’azione non completata che è stata interrotta dal verificarsi di un altro evento o azione, per esempio: “I was having a beautiful dream when the alarm clock rang.”
  • per esprimere un cambiamento di opinione, ad esempio: “I was going to spend the day at the beach but I’ve decided to get my homework done instead.”
  • con wonder, per formulare una domanda in modo estremamente educato: per esempio: “I was wondering if you could baby-sit for me tonight.”
  • Caroline was skiing when she broke her leg.
  • When we arrived he was having a bath.
  • When the fire started I was watching television.

Nota: con i verbi che non vengono solitamente usati alla forma progressiva, si utilizza il simple past.

Il past continuous di qualsiasi verbo si compone di due parti: il passato del verbo “to be” (was/were) e la forma base del verbo principale + ing

PRESENT PERFECT

Il present perfect di qualsiasi verbo si compone di due parti: la voce corretta dell’ausiliare to have (al presente) + il participio passato del verbo principale. Il participio passato di un verbo regolare si compone di forma base + ed, ad esempio played, arrived, looked. Molti verbi formano il participio passato in modo irregolare: l’elenco completo è riportato nella tavola dei verbi irregolari nella sezione Verbi.

Il present perfect esprime un collegamento tra il presente e il passato. L’azione si svolge in un momento non precisato del passato. Chi parla è più interessato al risultato dell’azione che all’azione in sé.

ATTENZIONE! In italiano il present perfect viene spesso confuso con il passato prossimo; in realtà i due tempi verbali NON hanno lo stesso significato.

IL “PRESENT PERFECT” SI USA PER DESCRIVERE
  • Un’azione o una situazione iniziata nel passato che continua nel presente. have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= e ci vivo ancora.)
  • Un’azione eseguita per un periodo di tempo è non ancora terminata. She has been to the cinema twice this week (= e la settimana non è ancora finita.)
  • Un’azione ripetuta in un periodo non definito di tempo fra passato e presente. We have visited Portugal several times.
  • Un’azione che si è appena conclusa, espressa con l’avverbio justhave just finished my work.
  • Un’azione svolta in un tempo irrilevante. He has read ‘War and Peace’. (= ci interessa il risultato, cioè che abbia letto il libro.)

Nota: Per dare o richiedere una precisione su quando, dove o chi ha svolto un’azione, si deve usare il simple past. Consultare la pagina su come scegliere tra il simple past e il present perfect.

AZIONE COMINCIATA NEL PASSATO CHE CONTINUA NEL PRESENTE
  • They haven’t lived here for years.
  • She has worked in the bank for five years.
  • We have had the same car for ten years.
  • Have you played the piano since you were a child?
QUANDO IL TEMPO ESPRESSO NELLA FRASE NON È ANCORA TERMINATO
  • I have worked hard this week.
  • It has rained a lot this year.
  • We haven’t seen her today.
AZIONE RIPETUTA IN UN MOMENTO NON PRECISATO FRA IL PASSATO E IL PRESENTE.
  • They have seen that film six times
  • It has happened several times already.
  • She has visited them frequently.
  • We have eaten at that restaurant many times.
AZIONE APPENA TERMINATA (+JUST)
  • Have you just finished work?
  • have just eaten.
  • We have just seen her.
  • Has he just left?
QUANDO IL TEMPO ESATTO DELL’AZIONE NON È IMPORTANTE O CONOSCIUTO
  • Someone has eaten my soup!
  • Have you seen ‘Gone with the Wind’?
  • She’s studied Japanese, Russian, and English.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Il present perfect continuous è composto da due elementi: il present perfect del verbo to be (have/has been) e il participio presente del verbo principale (forma base + ing).

Affermativa: She has been / She’s been running.
Negativa: She hasn’t been running.
Interrogativa : Has she been running?
Interrogativa negativa: Hasn’t she been running?

Il present perfect continuous si riferisce a un periodo non definito del passato compreso tra ‘prima di adesso’ e ‘adesso’. La persona che parla sta pensando a qualcosa che è stato iniziato, ma che forse non è ancora terminato, in quel determinato periodo di tempo. La persona è interessata sia al processo che al risultato; il processo dell’azione potrebbe essere ancora in corso o potrebbe essersi appena completato.

AZIONI INIZIATE NEL PASSATO E CHE CONTINUANO NEL PRESENTE

She has been waiting for you all day (= e sta ancora aspettando).
I’ve been working on this report since eight o’clock this morning (= e non l’ho ancora terminato).
They have been travelling since last October (= e non sono ancora tornati a casa).

AZIONI APPENA COMPLETATE, MA QUELLO CHE INTERESSA È IL RISULTATO

She has been cooking since last night (= e il cibo sulla tavola ha un aspetto delizioso).
It’s been raining (= le strade sono ancora bagnate).
Someone’s been eating my chips (= e ne è sparita la metà).

 

 

PAST PERFECT

Il past perfect definisce un tempo precedente a un altro tempo nel passato. Si usa per chiarire che un evento si è verificato prima di un altro evento nel passato. Non è importante quale evento viene riportato per primo nella frase: il tempo del verbo chiarisce cosa è successo prima.

In inglese, il past perfect si compone di due elementi: il past simple del verbo to have (had) + il participio passato del verbo principale.

PAST PERFECT + JUST

Just si usa con il past perfect per riferirsi a un evento che si è verificato appena prima del momento in cui si sta parlando, ad esempio:

  • The train had just left when I arrived at the station.
  • She had just left the room when the police arrived.
  • had just put the washing out when it started to rain.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Il past perfect continuous corrisponde al present perfect continuous, ma si riferisce a un tempo anteriore “al momento attuale’. Come avviene per il present perfect continuous, quello che interessa è il processo con cui si svolge un’azione.

  • Had you been waiting long before the taxi arrived?
  • We had been trying to open the door for five minutes when Jane found her key.
  • It had been raining hard for several hours and the streets were very wet.
  • Her friends had been thinking of calling the police when she walked in.

Questo tempo si usa anche nel discorso indiretto e corrisponde al past simple continuous e al present perfect continuous nel discorso diretto:

  • Jane said, “I have been gardening all afternoon.” = Jane said she had been gardening all afternoon.
  • When the police questioned him, John said, “I was working late in the office that night.” = When the police questioned him, John told them he had been working late in the office that night.

Il past perfect continuous si compone di due elementi: il past perfect del verbo to be (=had been) + il participio presente (forma base + ing).

Il past perfect continuous si compone di due elementi: il past perfect del verbo to be (=had been) + il participio presente (forma base + ing).

L’ARTICOLO DETERMINATIVO

La parola the è una delle parole più usate in inglese. È il solo e unico articolo determinativo usato in inglese e rimane invariato a prescindere dal numero e dal genere del sostantivo che accompagna. In inglese, i sostantivi sono preceduti da un articolo determinativo quando la persona che parla pensa che il suo interlocutore sappia già di cosa si stia parlando. Questo può avvenire per diverse ragioni, elencate qui di seguito.

QUANDO SI USA “THE”

REGOLE GENERALI

The si usa per fare riferimento a qualcosa che è già stato menzionato in precedenza.

  • On Monday, an unarmed man stole $1,000 from the bank. The thief hasn’t been caught yet.
  • I was walking past Benny’s Bakery when I decided to go into the bakery to get some bread.
  • There’s a position available in my team. The job will involve some international travel.

The si usa quando si presume che ci sia un solo esemplare di qualcosa alla quale si fa riferimento, anche se non è stata menzionata in precedenza.

  • We went on a walk in the forest yesterday.
  • Where is the bathroom?
  • Turn left and go to number 45. Our house is across from the Italian restaurant.
  • My father enjoyed the book you gave him.

The si usa in frasi o clausole nelle quali si vuole definire o identificare una persona o un oggetto specifici.

  • The man who wrote this book is famous.
  • I scratched the red car parked outside.
  • I live in the small house with a blue door.
  • He is the doctor I came to see.

The si usa per fare riferimento a persone o cose uniche al mondo.

  • The sun rose at 6:17 this morning.
  • You can go anywhere in the world.
  • Clouds drifted across the sky.
  • The president will be speaking on TV tonight.
  • The CEO of Total is coming to our meeting.

The si usa davanti ai superlativi e ai numeri ordinali.

  • This is the highest building in New York.
  • She read the last chapter of her new book first.
  • You are the tallest person in our class.
  • This is the third time I have called you today.

The si usa davanti a determinati aggettivi per fare riferimento a un intero gruppo di persone.

  • The French enjoy cheese.
  • The elderly require special attention.
  • She has given a lot of money to the poor.

The si usa per esprimere i decenni.

  • He was born in the seventies.
  • This is a painting from the 1820’s.

The si usa con le clausole introdotte da only.

  • This is the only day we’ve had sunshine all week.
  • You are the only person he will listen to.
  • The only tea I like is black tea.
NOMI PROPRI

The si usa con i nomi propri di zone geografiche, fiumi, catene montuose, gruppi di isole, canali e oceani.

  • They are travelling in the Arctic.
  • Our ship crossed the Atlantic in 7 days.
  • I will go on a cruise down the Nile.
  • Hiking across the Rocky Mountains would be difficult.

The si usa con i nomi di paesi al plurale.

  • I have never been to the Netherlands.
  • Do you know anyone who lives in the Philippines?

The si usa con nomi di paesi che includono le parole “republic”, “kingdom” o “states”.

  • She is visiting the United States.
  • James is from the Republic of Ireland.

The si usa con i nomi di giornali e riviste.

  • I read it in the Guardian.
  • She works for the New York Times.

The si usa con i nomi di edifici famosi, opere d’arte, musei o monumenti.

  • Have you been to the Vietnam Memorial?
  • We went to the Louvre and saw the Mona Lisa.
  • I would like to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • I saw King Lear at the Globe.

The si usa con i nomi di alberghi e ristoranti, tranne quando questi prendono il nome di una persona.

  • They are staying at the Hilton on 6th street.
  • We ate at the Golden Lion.

The si usa con i cognomi ma non con i nomi propri.

  • We’re having dinner with the Smiths tonight.
  • The Browns are going to the play with us.

QUANDO NON SI USA “THE”

The non si usa con i nomi di paesi (escluse le eccezioni qui sopra).

  • Germany is an important economic power.
  • He’s just returned from Zimbabwe.

The non si usa con i nomi delle lingue.

  • French is spoken in Tahiti.
  • English uses many words of Latin origin.
  • Indonesian is a relatively new language.

The non si usa con i nomi dei pasti.

  • Lunch is my favorite meal.
  • I like to eat breakfast early.

The non si usa con i nomi propri.

  • John is coming over later.
  • Mary Carpenter is my boss.

The non si usa con i titoli seguiti da un nome.

  • Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth’s son.
  • President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.

The non si usa dopo il genitivo sassone.

  • His brother’s car was stolen.
  • Peter’s house is over there.

The non si usa con le professioni.

  • Engineering is a well-paid career.
  • He’ll probably study medicine.

The non si usa con i nomi dei negozi.

  • I’ll get the card at Smith’s.
  • Can you go to Boots for me?

The non si usa con gli anni.

  • 1948 was a wonderful year.
  • He was born in 1995.

The non si usa con i sostantivi non numerabili.

  • Rice is an important food in Asia.
  • Milk is often added to tea in England.
  • War is destructive.

The non si usa con in nomi di singole montagne e isole e di laghi.

  • Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
  • She lives near Lake Windermere.
  • Have you visited Long Island?

The non si usa con la maggior parte dei nomi di città, strade, stazioni e aeroporti.

  • Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
  • Can you direct me to Bond Street?
  • She lives in Florence.
  • They’re flying into Heathrow.

 ARTICOLI INDETERMINATIVI

I due articoli indeterminativi della lingua inglese sono a e an. L’articolo indeterminativo rimane invariato a prescindere dal genere del sostantivo che lo accompagna, così come avviene per l’articolo determinativo. La scelta dell’articolo da usare dipende dalla lettera con la quale inizia la parola successiva, per facilitarne la pronuncia. Si usa a quando la parola che segue inizia per consonante o per il suono come you dato dalla lettera u e dal dittongo eu. Si usa an quando la parola che segue inizia per vocale (a,e,i,o,u) o per h muta.

  • a boy
  • an apple
  • a car
  • a helicopter
  • an elephant
  • a big elephant
  • an itchy sweater
  • an ugly duck
  • a european
  • a university
  • a unit
  • an hour
  • an honor

L’articolo indeterminativo è usato quando ci si riferisce a qualcosa per la prima volta, o per riferirsi a un componente specifico di un gruppo o di una classe. Alcuni esempi e casi sono riportati qui di seguito.

Si usa a quando ci si riferisce a qualcosa per la prima volta.

  • Would you like a drink?
  • I’ve finally got a good job.
  • An elephant and a mouse fell in love.
DESIGNAZIONE DI UN MEMBRO DI UN GRUPPO

Si usa a/an per specificare una professione.

  • John is a doctor.
  • Mary is training to be an engineer.
  • He wants to be a dancer.

Si usa a/an con le nazionalità e le religioni al singolare.

  • John is an Englishman.
  • Kate is a Catholic.

Si usa a con i giorni della settimana quando non ci si riferisce a una data precisa.

  • I was born on a Thursday.
  • Could I come over on a Saturday sometime?

Si usa a/an quando si fa un esempio.

  • The mouse had a tiny nose .
  • The elephant had a long trunk .
  • It was a very strange car .

Si usa a/an con i sostantivi singolari dopo le parole what e such.

  • What a shame !
  • She’s such a beautiful girl .
  • What a lovely day !

Si usa a/an con il significato di “uno” quando ci si riferisce a un singolo oggetto, persona o unità di misura. In questi casi, è grammaticalmente corretto usare anche one per dare enfasi al numero o per correggere una quantità errata.

  • I’d like an orange and two lemons please.
  • I’d like one orange and two lemons please.
  • The burglar took a diamond necklace and some valuable paintings.
  • I can think of a hundred reasons not to come.
  • I need a kilogram of sugar.
  • Would you like two kilograms of sugar? No, I need one kilogram of sugar.
  • You can’t run a mile in 5 minutes!

ARTICLESEXERCISE

English Tenses – English Grammar Exercises

Reported speech (1)

When we report someone’s words we can do it in two ways. We can use direct speech with quotation marks (“I work in a bank”), or we can use reported speech (He said he worked in a bank.)

In reported speech the tenses, word-order and pronouns may be different from those in the original sentence.

Present simple and present continuous tenses

  • Direct speech: “I travel a lot in my job” Reported speech: He said that he travelled a lot in his job.

The present simple tense (I travel) usually changes to the past simple (he travelled) in reported speech.

  • Direct speech: “Be quiet. The baby’s sleeping.” Reported speech: She told me to be quiet because the baby was sleeping.

The present continuous usually changes to the past continuous.

NB:

  • “I work in Italy” Reported speech: He told me that he works in Italy.

It isn’t always necessary to change the tense. If something is still true now – he still works in Italy – we can use the present simple in the reported sentence.

Past simple and past continuous tenses

  • Direct speech: “We lived in China for 5 years.” Reported speech: She told me they had lived in China for 5 years.

The past simple tense (we lived) usually changes to the past perfect (they had lived) in reported speech.

  • Direct speech: “I was walking down the road when I saw the accident.” Reported speech: He told me he’d been walking down the road when he’d seen the accident.

The past continuous usually changes to the past perfect continuous.

Perfect tenses

  • Direct speech: “They’ve always been very kind to me”. Reported speech: She said they’d always been very kind to her.

The present perfect tense (have always been) usually changes to the past perfect tense (had always been).

  • Direct speech: “They had already eaten when I arrived” Reported speech: He said they’d already eaten when he’d arrived.

The past perfect tense does not change in reported speech.

Reported speech (2)

Remember that in reported speech we usually change the tense of the direct statement. The present simple tense changes to the past simple, the past simple changes to the past perfect and so on.

Here are some other points to consider.

‘Can’ and ‘will’

  • Direct speech: “I can’t remember his name.” Reported speech: She said she couldn’t remember his name.

Can’ and ‘can’t’ in direct speech change to ‘could’ and ‘couldn’t’ in reported speech.

  • Direct speech: “I’ll be there for 3 weeks.” Reported speech: He told me he’d be there for 3 weeks.

Will’ and ‘won’t’ in direct speech change to ‘would’ and ‘wouldn’t’ in reported speech.

Other modal verbs

  • Direct speech: “You could be right.” Reported speech: I said that he could be right.
  • Direct speech: “You must call me.” Reported speech: She said that I must call her.

Other modal verbs don’t change in reported speech.

Reporting orders, requests and advice

  • Direct speech: “Sit down and shut up!” Reported speech: The teacher told me to sit down and shut up.
  • Direct speech: “Can you hold this for me please?” Reported speech: He asked me to hold it.
  • Direct speech: “You should do more exercise.” Reported speech: He advised me to do more exercise.

Orders, request and advice can be reported using an infinitive.

Reporting verbs

There are a number of verbs that we use to report statements. These can make your speech and writing more interesting than simply reporting every word of the direct speech.

  • Direct speech: “It wasn’t me who broke the window.” > He denied breaking the window.
  • Direct speech: “I’ll help you if you want” > She offered to help.

There are a number of verbs that can be used to report. They include: promiseclaimsuggestadviserefuseargueconfirm and others.

Reported questions

When we report what people say, we usually change the tense of the verbs to reflect that we are reporting – not giving direct speech. This pattern is followed when we report questions and there are also other important changes between direct questions and reported questions.

Yes/no questions

  • Direct question: “Do you like working in teams?” Reported question: He asked if I liked working in teams.

When we report yes/no questions we use ‘if’ or ‘whether’.

  • Direct question: “Did you enjoy the party?” Reported question: She asked me whether I’d enjoyed the party.

The tense of the verb changes as it does in reported speech but we don’t use auxiliary verbs. The word order is the same as in an affirmative sentence.

Questions with a question word

  • Direct question: “What time does the train leave?” Reported question: He asked what time the train left.

When there is a question word (what, where, why, who, when, how) we use that question word in the reported question but there is no auxiliary verb and the word order is like an affirmative sentence (‘what time the train left’ not He asked me what time did the train leave.)

Look at some more examples:

  • Direct question: “Who did you see?”
  • Reported question: She asked me who I’d seen.
  • Direct question: “Where did you go to school?”
  • Reported question: He asked me where I’d gone to school.
  • Direct question: “Why are you crying?”
  • Reported question: She asked him why he was crying.

Notice that the reported questions do not have a question mark at the end.

Indirect questions

Similar to reported questions are indirect questions.

  • Can you tell me what time the train leavesNOT Can you tell me what time does the train leave?
  • I’d love to know what he said to herNOT I’d love to know what did he say to her.

Reported Speech, Indirect Speech – English Grammar Exercises

DA FARE
BBC

PREPOSIZIONI

PREPOSIZIONI 1

TEST

ESERCIZI PREPOSIZIONI

PRONUNCIA

PRONUNCIA1

PREPOSIZIONI E VERBI

VERBI E PREP.

ADJ VS PREP

ADJ VS PREP2

DEMONSTRATIVES

Demonstratives show where an object, event, or person is in relation to the speaker. They can refer to a physical or a psychological closeness or distance. When talking about events, the near demonstratives are often used to refer to the present while the far demonstratives often refer to the past.

  Near the speaker Far from the speaker
Adverb Here There
Demonstrative with singular nouns
& uncountable nouns
This That
Demonstrative with
plural countable nouns
These Those

DEMONSTRATIVE USAGE

EXAMPLES
Near the speaker Far from the speaker
Is this John’s house? Is that John’s house over there?
This is a nice surprise! That must have been a nice surprise for you.
These apples are mine. Those apples are yours.
What are you up to these days? Those days are long gone.
This time I won’t be late. We really surprised you that time.
This sugar is for my crepes. You can use that sugar for your cake.

SENTENCE PLACEMENT

Demonstratives can be placed before the noun or the adjective that modifies the noun.

EXAMPLES
  • This blue car needs to be washed next.
  • Those people were here first.
  • That metal rod should work.
  • These oranges are delicious.

Demonstratives can also appear before a number by itself when the noun is understood from the context.

EXAMPLES
  • I’d like to try on that one.
  • This one is broken.
  • I’ll take these three.
  • Those two are not as pretty as these two.

Demonstratives can be used by themselves when the noun they modify is understood from the context.

EXAMPLES
  • I’ll never forget this.
  • That has nothing to do with me.
  • I didn’t ask for these.
  • Those aren’t mine.

PRONOUNS

Pronouns replace nouns. A different pronoun is required depending on two elements: the noun being replaced and the function that noun has in the sentence. In English, pronouns only take the gender of the noun they replace in the 3rd person singular form. The 2nd person plural pronouns are identical to the 2nd person singular pronouns except for the reflexive pronoun.

  Subject Pronoun Object Pronoun Possessive Adjective (Determiner) Possessive Pronoun Reflexive or Intensive Pronoun
1st person singular I me my mine myself
2nd person singular you you your yours yourself
3rd person singular, male he him his his himself
3rd person singular, female she her her hers herself
3rd person singular, neutral it it its   itself
1st person plural we us our ours ourselves
2nd person plural you you your yours yourselves
3rd person plural they them their theirs themselves

SUBJECT PRONOUNS

Subject pronouns replace nouns that are the subject of their clause. In the 3rd person, subject pronouns are often used to avoid repetition of the subject’s name.

EXAMPLES
  • I am 16.
  • You seem lost.
  • Jim is angry, and he wants Sally to apologize.
  • This table is old. It needs to be repainted.
  • We aren’t coming.
  • They don’t like pancakes.

OBJECT PRONOUNS

Object pronouns are used to replace nouns that are the direct or indirect object of a clause.

EXAMPLES
  • Give the book to me.
  • The teacher wants to talk to you.
  • Jake is hurt because Bill hit him.
  • Rachid recieved a letter from her last week.
  • Mark can’t find it.
  • Don’t be angry with us.
  • Tell them to hurry up!

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES (DETERMINERS)

Possessive adjectives are not pronouns, but rather determiners. It is useful to learn them at the same time as pronouns, however, because they are similar in form to the possessive pronouns. Possessive adjectives function as adjectives, so they appear before the noun they modify. They do not replace a noun as pronouns do.

EXAMPLES
  • Did mother find my shoes?
  • Mrs. Baker wants to see your homework.
  • Can Jake bring over his baseball cards?
  • Samantha will fix her bike tomorrow.
  • The cat broke its leg.
  • This is our house.
  • Where is their school?

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Possessive pronouns replace possessive nouns as either the subject or the object of a clause. Because the noun being replaced doesn’t appear in the sentence, it must be clear from the context.

EXAMPLES
  • This bag is mine.
  • Yours is not blue.
  • That bag looks like his.
  • These shoes are not hers.
  • That car is ours.
  • Theirs is parked in the garage.

REFLEXIVE & INTENSIVE PRONOUNS

Reflexive and intensive pronouns are the same set of words but they have different functions in a sentence.

Reflexive pronouns refer back to the subject of the clause because the subject of the action is also the direct or indirect object. Only certain types of verbs can be reflexive. You cannot remove a reflexive pronoun from a sentence because the remaining sentence would be grammatically incorrect.

EXAMPLES
  • I told myself to calm down.
  • You cut yourself on this nail?
  • He hurt himself on the stairs.
  • She found herself in a dangerous part of town.
  • The cat threw itself under my car!
  • We blame ourselves for the fire.
  • The children can take care of themselves.

Intensive pronouns emphasize the subject of a clause. They are not the object of the action. The intensive pronoun can always be removed from a sentence without changing the meaning significantly, although the emphasis on the subject will be removed. Intensive pronouns can be placed immediately after the subject of the clause, or at the end of the clause.

EXAMPLES
  • I made these cookies myself.
  • You yourself asked Jake to come.
  • The Pope himself pardoned Mr. Brown.
  • My teacher didn’t know the answer herself.
  • The test itself wasn’t scary, but my teacher certainly is.
  • We would like to finish the renovation before Christmas ourselves.
  • They themselves told me the lost shoe wasn’t a problem.

QUANTIFIERS

Quantifiers are adjectives and adjectival phrases that give approximate or specific answers to the questions “How much?” and “How many?” The pages in this section will teach you more about the different quantifiers in English and how they are used.

PICK THE RIGHT QUANTIFIER

To answer the questions How much? And How many? certain quantifiers can be used with countable nouns (friends, cups, people), others with uncountable nouns (sugar, tea, money) and still others with all types of nouns.

Only with uncountable nouns With all types of nouns Only with countable nouns
a little no, none, not any a few
a bit of some a number of
  any several
a great deal of a lot of, lots of a great number of
a large amount of plenty of a large number of
EXAMPLES
  • Would you like some tea and a few cookies?
  • I always put a little milk and some carrots in my soup.
  • He has several apples. I don’t have any fruit at all.
  • She has plenty of clothes for the winter.
  • I recieved a large amount of feedback from my survey.
USING “MUCH” AND”MANY”

Much and many are mainly used in interrogative and negative sentences. They are also used in affirmative and negative sentences in combination with too and so. Notice: the word many can be used alone in affirmative sentences while the word  annot. Much is replaced in affirmative sentences with a lot of or lots of (these expressions can also replacemany).

Uncountable nouns Countable nouns
How much sugar do you have? How many people came to the concert?
There’s not much sugar at the store. Not many people came to the concert.
I have too much sugar at home. There were too many people at the concert.
I don’t know what to do with so much sugar. It’s a problem when there are so many people.
I wish there was not so much sugar here. There were not so many people last year.
There is a lot of sugar in candy. There are many people who want to come. = There are a lot of people who want to come.

EXPRESSING OPINIONS ABOUT QUANTITY

The quantifiers few and a few, and little and a little seem nearly identical but they are actually quite distinct. These expressions show the speaker’s attitude towards the quantity he is referring to as either positive or negative.

POSITIVE ATTITUDE

A few(for countable nouns) and a little (for uncountable nouns) describe the quantity in a positive way, implying that although the speaker may not have much, he has enough.

EXAMPLES
  • I’ve got a few friends. = I have enough friends.
  • I have a few flowers in my garden. = I have enough flowers.
  • I’ve got a little money. = I have enough money.
  • I have a little free time on Thursdays. = I have enough free time.
NEGATIVE ATTITUDE

Few (for countable nouns) and little (for uncountable nouns) describe the quantity in a negative way. They may actually indicate a total lack of the noun, but are more polite than saying so directly.

EXAMPLES
  • Few people visited him in hospital. = he had almost no visitors, or perhaps no visitors at all.
  • I’ve seen few birds around here. = there are almost no birds, or perhaps not a single bird
  • He had little money for treats. = almost no money, or perhaps no money at all
  • I have little time for TV = almost no time, or perhaps no time at all

INDEFINITE AND INCOMPLETE QUANTITIES

Some and any can be used with countable and uncountable nouns to describe an undefined or incomplete quantity.

USING “SOME”

Some can be used in descriptive sentences.

EXAMPLES
  • I had some rice for lunch.
  • He got some books from the library.
  • I will have some news next week.
  • Philip wants some help with his exams.
  • There is some butter in the fridge.

Some is also used in interrogative sentences when you think you already know the answer.

EXAMPLES
  • Did he give you some tea? = I think he did.
  • Is there some fruit juice in the fridge? = I think there is.
  • Would you like some help? = Probably you do.
  • Will you have some roast beef? = Probably you will

Some can also be used in interrogative sentences to ask for something or to offer something.

EXAMPLES
  • Could I have some books, please?
  • Why don’t you take some apples home with you?
  • Would you like some tea?
  • Will you have some cake?

USING “ANY”

Anyis used in interrogative sentences when you do not know the answer.

EXAMPLES
  • Do you have any friends in London?
  • Do they have any children?
  • Do you want any groceries from the shop?
  • Are there any problems with your work?

Any is also used with not to form negative sentences. In these sentences, the word any emphasizes the negativity to make it more absolute.

EXAMPLES
  • She doesn’t want any kitchen appliances for Christmas.
  • They don’t need any help moving to their new house.
  • I don’t want any cake.
  • There isn’t any reason to complain.

GRADED QUANTIFIERS

Graded quantifiers allow us to compare the quantity of one thing with the quantity of another, without specifying an exact quantity for either element. Graded quantifiers preceed nouns. Different quantifiers are needed for countable and uncountable nouns. Sometimes the noun can be omitted when it is understood from the context.

They are distinct from comparatives and superlatives, which compare the degrees of a quality (adjectives) or the degree of the manner something was done (adverbs). Graded quantifiers, like comparatives and superlatives, hold a relative position on a scale of increase or decrease. The superlative grade is always preceeded by the in a sentence.

quantifier comparative grade superlative grade
With plural countable nouns
many more most
few fewer fewest
With uncountable nouns
much more most
little less least
EXAMPLES
  • There are many people in England, more people in India, but the most people live in China.
  • Much time and money is spent on education, more on health services but the most is spent on national defence.
  • Few rivers in Europe are not polluted.
  • Fewer people die young now than in the seventeenth century.
  • The country with the fewest people per square kilometre must be Australia.
  • Scientists have little hope of finding a complete cure for cancer before the year 2020.
  • She had less time to study than Paul but had better results.
  • Give that dog the least opportunity and it will bite you.

ENOUGH AS A QUANTIFIER

Enough can be used as a quantifier when it is placed before any noun, to indicate the quantity required or necessary. It can be used in both affirmative and negative sentences.

EXAMPLES
  • There is enough bread for lunch.
  • She has enough money.
  • There are not enough apples for all of us.
  • I don’t have enough sugar to make a cake.

The word enough can also be anadverb of degree, in which case it is not placed before a noun.

DISTRIBUTIVES

Distributive determiners refer to a group of people or things, and to individual members of the group. They show different ways of looking at the individuals within a group, and they express how something is distributed, shared, or divided.

USING “EACH” AND “EVERY”

Each is a way of seeing the members of a group as individuals, while every is a way of seeing a group as a series of members. These distributives can only be used with countable nouns. They are normally used with singular nouns, and are placed before the noun. In many cases, they are interchangeable.

EXAMPLES
  • Each child received a present.
  • Every child received a present.
  • I gave each plant some water.
  • I gave every plant some water.

Each can also be used with plural nouns and pronouns but must be followed by ‘of’. Every cannot be used with plural nouns.

EXAMPLES
  • Each of the children received a present.
  • I gave each of the plants some water.
  • He told each of us our jobs.
  • I gave each of them a kiss.

Every can express different points in a series, especially with time expressions. Each works in the same way, but is less common.

EXAMPLES
  • Every morning John goes jogging.
  • This magazine is published every week.
  • I have my coffee here every day.
  • I go visit my mother each week.
  • Each Monday, he buys a kilo of apples.

USING “ALL” AS A DISTRIBUTIVE

The distributive determiner all is used to talk about a whole group, with a special emphasis on the fact that nothing has been left out. All can be used as a distributive in several different patterns.

All can be used with uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns by itself. In this usage, it refers to the group as a concept rather than as individuals.

EXAMPLES
  • All cheese contains protein.
  • I like all dogs.
  • All children need affection.
  • This soap is for all purposes.

All can be used with uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns preceeded by the or a possessive adjective. In this case, the meaning is shifted towards referring to a concrete, physical group rather than the group as a concept. In these uses, the word of can be added just after all with no change in meaning.

EXAMPLES
  • All the people in the room were silent.
  • All of the birds flew away.
  • Have you eaten all the bread?
  • I will need all of the sugar.
  • I’ve invited all my friends to the party.
  • I’ve used up all of our eggs.
  • You wasted all your time.

Allcan be used with plural pronouns preceeded by of.

EXAMPLES
  • All of us are going.
  • He scolded all of you.
  • Did you find all of them?

All can be used in questions and exclamations with uncountable nouns preceeded by this or that. In these uses, the word of can be added just after all with no change in meaning.

EXAMPLES
  • Who has left all this paper on my desk?
  • Look at all this snow!
  • Why is all of that sugar on the floor?
  • Where did all of this confetti come from?

All can be used in questions and exclamations with countable nouns preceeded by these or those. In these uses, the word of can be added just after all with no change in meaning.

EXAMPLES
  • Look at all those balloons!
  • Where did all of those books come from?
  • Why are all these children crying?

USING “HALF” AS A DISTRIBUTIVE

The distributive determinerhalf is used to talk about a whole group divided in two. Half can be used as a distributive in several different patterns. Other fractions can be used in the same patterns, although they are less frequent.

Half can be used with measurements preceeded by an indefinite article (a or an). In this usage, it refers to a measurement.

EXAMPLES
  • I had half a cup of milk left.
  • I bought half a kilo of flour.
  • He ran half a mile this morning.
  • I will be back in half a minute.

Half can be used with nouns preceeded by the, a, a demonstrative, or a possessive adjective. In this case, the meaning refers to a concrete, physical division. The word of can be added just after half with no change in meaning.

EXAMPLES
  • Half the people have already left.
  • Half of an apple isn’t very much lunch.
  • Did you use half my sugar?
  • I will need half of the flour for my cake.
  • I earned half of that money last summer.
  • She found half these frogs in the river.
  • I spent half that time on my project.
  • You can take half of those books back.
  • I’ve invited half my friends to the party.
  • I’ve used up half of our eggs.
  • You wasted half your money on that!

Half can be used with plural pronouns preceeded by of.

EXAMPLES
  • Half of us are going.
  • He scolded half of you but he let the rest off.
  • You couldn’t find half of them?

DISTRIBUTIVES FOR PAIRS OF OBJECTS

The distributive determiners both, either and neither are concerned with distribution between a pair of objects. Normally, these words cannot be used to refer to a group of three or more individuals. They also cannot be used to refer to a group of indefinite size. These distributives can only refer to countable nouns.

USING “BOTH”

Both refers to the whole pair and is equivalent to “one and the other”. Both can be used with plural nouns on its own, or it can be followed by “of”, with or without an article. When followed by a plural pronoun, both must be separated from the pronoun by “of”. Both cannot be used with singular nouns, because it refers to two things.

EXAMPLES
  • Both children were born in Italy.
  • Both the children were born in Italy.
  • Both of the children were born in Italy.
  • Both my parents have fair hair.
  • Both of my parents have fair hair.
  • Both of us like skiing.
  • I told both of them to calm down.

USING “EITHER”

Either is positive and when used alone, refers to one of the two members of the pair. It is equivalent to “one or the other”. Because it refers to just one member of a pair, either must be used before a singular noun. It can also be used with a plural noun or pronoun if followed by “of”.

EXAMPLES
  • I can stay at either hotel.
  • Either day is fine for me.
  • There are two chairs here. You can take either of them.
  • Either of you can come.
  • Either of the hotels will be fine.
  • I can eat either of the salads.

Either can also be used with or in a construction that talks about each member of the pair in turn. The meaning remains the same, but in this case either is not functioning as a distributive. It is functioning as a conjunction.

EXAMPLES
  • You can have either ice cream or chocolate cake.
  • I will come on either Thursday or Friday.
  • You can either come inside or put on your raincoat.

USING “NEITHER”

Neither is negative and when used alone, refers to the whole pair. It is equivalent to “not one or the other”. Because it refers to just one member of a pair, neither must be used before a singular noun. It can also be used with a plural noun or pronoun if followed by “of”.

EXAMPLES
  • Neither chair is any good.
  • Neither brother came.
  • Which bag do you want? Neither of them.
  • Neither of us were on time.
  • I think neither of these dresses fits me.
  • Neither of the children wanted to go.

Neither can also be used with nor in a construction that talks about each member of the pair in turn. The meaning remains the same, but in this case neither is not functioning as a distributive. It is functioning as a conjunction.

EXAMPLES
  • You can have neither cookies nor candy.
  • It is neither raining nor snowing.
  • She is neither tall nor short.

Personal pronouns or Possessive determiners – Exercise 1

Personal pronouns or Possessive determiners – Exercise 2

Quantifiers – much, many, some, any, few, little – English Grammar Exercises

his, thatthese, those – Exercise

Adjectives Exercise
Adjectives Exercise
Comparative Adjectives Exercise
Comparative Adjectives Exercise
adjectives_comparison_as_as
adjective_comparison
order of adjectives
express_

25 PHRASES FOR EXPRESSING OPINIONS

I think…. I believe…. I feel…. I suppose…. I guess…. According to me…. In my view…. In my opinion…. In my eyes…. It seems to me that…. From my perspective…. From my point of view…. From my view point…. As far as I’m concerned…. Personally, I think…. I’d like to point out that…. What I mean is…. Generally it is thought that…. Some people say that…. Well, it is considered that…. It is generally accepted that…. My impression is that…. It goes without saying that…. I hold the view that…. I’m of the opinion that….

25 PHRASES FOR EXPRESSING AGREEMENT

I agree…. I totally agree…. Definitely…. I couldn’t agree more…. Absolutely…. Precisely…. I see your point…. I see what you are getting at…. I’d go along with that view to a point… Sure, that’s one way of looking at it…. I have to side with you on this one…. I suppose so…. I think so too…. I’d go along with that…. That’s a good point…. I see exactly what you mean…. You’re right, that’s a good point…. Actually, I think you’re right…. That’s true…. Well, I agree with you here…. You have my full agreement…. I second that…. Ok, that’s convincing…. I take your word on it…. You took the words right out of my mouth…

Jagrati Chauhan, 2014

25 PHRASES FOR EXPRESSING DISAGREEMENT

I see your point, but…. I see what you are getting at, but…. That’s one way of looking at it, however…. I completely disagree…. Well, I see things rather differently…. Umm, I’m not sure about that…. I’m not sure I go along with that view…. I don’t really agree with that idea…. I agree up to a point, but…. You could say that, however…. I wouldn’t quite put it that way myself…. I still have my doubts…. I can’t/ couldn’t go along with that…. That’s out of question…. You’ve got to be kidding…. Well, I don’t quite agree with you…. I find that very difficult to accept…. We don’t seem to agree here…. Not necessarily…. That’s not always true…. There is no way I could agree with that…. I don’t think so…. No, I’m not sure about that because…. I’m afraid, I disagree…. We don’t seem to be in complete agreement….

25 PHRASES FOR EXPRESSING INTERRUPTION

Sorry to interrupt, but…. Can I add something here…. Is it ok if I jump in for a moment…. If I might add something…. If I may interrupt…. Can I throw my two cents in…. Do you mind if I add something…. Umm, well not really…. Excuse me, but in my opinion…. Are you telling that…. Excuse me for a second, but…. Sorry, but I’m not done yet…. Let me finish what I have to say first…. May I say something here…. Excuse me for interrupting, but…. Sorry to cut you off, but…. Well, that reminds me that…. So, you’re telling me…. I don’t mean to intrude, but…. Well, if that is the case…. Sorry, but can you let me finish…. Wait a minute…. Before you go on, I’d like to say something…. Before you move on, I’d like to say something…. Just a moment, I like to add something here….

ORDERING MULTIPLE ADJECTIVES

When a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on the function of the adjective. The usual order is:

Quantity, Value/opinion, Size, Temperature, Age, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material

What the adjective expresses Examples
Quantity four, ten, a few, several
Value/Opinion delicious, charming, beautiful
Size tall, tiny, huge
Temperature hot, cold
Age old, young, new, 14-year-old
Shape square, round
Color red, purple, green
Origin Swedish, Victorian, Chinese
Material glass, silver, wooden
EXAMPLES
  • They have a lovely old red post-box.
  • The playroom has six small round plastic tables.
  • I bought some charming Victorian silver ornaments at the flea market.
  • She is selling her flashy 3-year-old Italian car.
  • It was a beautiful cold day.

COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES

Comparative adjectives are used to compare differences between the two objects they modify (larger, smaller, faster, higher). They are used in sentences where two nouns are compared, in this pattern:

Noun (subject) + verb + comparative adjective + than + noun (object).

The second item of comparison can be omitted if it is clear from the context (final example below).

EXAMPLES
  • My house is larger than hers.
  • This box is smaller than the one I lost.
  • Your dog runs faster than Jim’s dog.
  • The rock flew higher than the roof.
  • Jim and Jack are both my friends, but I like Jack better. (“than Jim” is understood)

SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES

Superlative adjectives are used to describe an object which is at the upper or lower limit of a quality (the tallest, the smallest, the fastest, the highest). They are used in sentences where a subject is compared to a group of objects.

Noun (subject) + verb + the + superlative adjective + noun (object).

The group that is being compared with can be omitted if it is clear from the context (final example below

EXAMPLES
  • My house is the largest one in our neighborhood.
  • This is the smallest box I’ve ever seen.
  • Your dog ran the fastest of any dog in the race.
  • We all threw our rocks at the same time. My rock flew the highest. (“of all the rocks” is understood)

FORMING REGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

Forming comparatives and superlatives is easy. The form depends on the number of syllables in the original adjective.

ONE SYLLABLE ADJECTIVES

Add -er for the comparative and -est for the superlative. If the adjective has a consonant + single vowel + consonant spelling, the final consonant must be doubled before adding the ending.

Adjective Comparative Superlative
tall taller tallest
fat fatter fattest
big bigger biggest
sad sadder saddest
TWO SYLLABLES

Adjectives with two syllables can form the comparative either by adding -er or by preceeding the adjective with more. These adjectives form the superlative either by adding -est or by preceeding the adjective with most. In many cases, both forms are used, although one usage will be more common than the other. If you are not sure whether a two-syllable adjective can take a comparative or superlative ending, play it safe and use moreand most instead. For adjectives ending in y, change the y to an i before adding the ending.

Adjective Comparative Superlative
happy happier happiest
simple simpler simplest
busy busier busiest
tilted more tilted most tilted
tangled more tangled most tangled
THREE OR MORE SYLLABLES

Adjectives with three or more syllables form the comparative by putting more in front of the adjective, and the superlative by putting most in front.

Adjective Comparative Superlative
important more important most important
expensive more expensive most expensive

REGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

These very common adjectives have completely irregular comparative and superlative forms.

Adjective Comparative Superlative
good better best
bad worse worst
little less least
much more most
far further / farther furthest / farthest

EXAMPLES

  • Today is the worst day I’ve had in a long time.
  • You play tennis better than I do.
  • This is the least expensive sweater in the store.
  • This sweater is less expensive than that one.
  • I ran pretty far yesterday, but I ran even farther today.

COMPARING ATTRIBUTES

When comparing the attributes of two things, we use a standard set of constructions.

WHEN ATTRIBUTES ARE EQUAL

Comparing equal attributes is simple. To compare the attributes of two things that are equal, we use the pattern:

as + adjective describing the attribute + as

EXAMPLES
  • Tom is as tall as his brother.
  • I am as hungry as you are.
  • Sally is as nice as Jane.
WHEN ATTRIBUTES ARE NOT EQUAL

When the two attributes are not equal, there are three constructions with equivalent meanings.

Either use the pattern:

not as + adjective describing the attribute + as

Or use the pattern:

less + adjective describing the attribute + than : This construction is more frequent with some adjectives than with others.

Or use the pattern:

comparative adjective + than : This construction may require changing the order of the phrase or using the opposing adjective.

EXAMPLES
  • Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest.
  • Mont Blanc is less high than Mount Everest.
  • Mont Blanc is lower than Mount Everest.
  • Mount Everest is higher than Mont Blanc.
  • Norway is not as sunny as Thailand.
  • Norway is less sunny than Thailand.
  • Thailand is sunnier than Norway.
  • Norway is cloudier than Thailand.

ADJECTIVES COMPARING EQUAL QUANTITIES

To compare two things that are equal, we use the pattern:

as + adjective indicating quantity + (noun) + as

The quantity adjective you use depends if the noun in the comparison is countable or uncountable.

COUNTABLE NOUNS

Use as many and as few with countable nouns. Note that the noun may be ommitted when it is understood from the context, as in the last example below.

EXAMPLES
  • They have as many children as we do.
  • We have as many customers as they do.
  • Tom has as few books as Jane.
  • There are as few houses in his village as in mine.
  • You know as many people as I do.
  • I have visited the States as many times as he has.
  • I have three brothers. That’s as many as you have. (“brothers” is understood)
UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Use as much or as little with uncountable nouns. Note that the noun may be ommitted when it is understood from the context, as in the last example below.

EXAMPLES
  • John eats as much food as Peter.
  • Jim has as little patience as Sam.
  • You’ve heard as much news as I have.
  • He’s had as much success as his brother has.
  • They’ve got as little water as we have.
  • I’m not hungry. I’ve had as much as I want. (“food” is understood)

ADJECTIVES COMPARING UNEQUAL QUANTITIES

To compare two things that are unequal, we use the pattern:

adjective indicating quantity + (noun) + than

The quantity adjective you use depends if the noun in the comparison is countable or uncountable.

COUNTABLE NOUNS

Use more and fewer with countable nouns. Note that the noun may be ommitted when it is understood from the context, as in the last example below.

EXAMPLES
  • They have more children than we do.
  • We have more customers than they do.
  • Tom has fewer books than Jane.
  • There are fewer houses in his village than in mine.
  • You know more people than I do.
  • I have visited the States more times than he has.
  • I have three brothers. That’s more than you have. (“brothers” is understood)
UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Use more or less with uncountable nouns. Note that the noun may be omitted when it is understood from the context, as in the last example below.

EXAMPLES
  • John eats more food than Peter.
  • Jim has less patience than Sam.
  • You’ve heard more news than I have.
  • He’s had more success than his brother has.
  • They’ve got less water than we have.
  • I’m not hungry at all. I’ve had more than I want. (“food” is understood)

VERB PREPOSITION
A
absorb in
account for
add to
adjust to
admit to
agree with
apply for
appeal to
argue with
argue about
arrange for
arrive in / at (büyük mekanlarda in ,küçük mekanlarda at)
apologize for
approve of
ask for
accuse smb of smt
arrest smb for smt
B
base on
beg for
begin with
benefit from
believe in
belong to
boast about
borrow from
blame smb for smt
blame smt on smb
C
care for / about
cater for
choose between
comment on
collide with
communicate with
compare with / to
compete with
complain about
compose of
concern about / with
concentrate on
confess to
confuse with
congratulate on
consist of
contribute to

cope with
correspond with
count on
cover with
crash into
charge smb with smt (suçlamak)
charge smb for smt (para tahsil etmek)
convict smb of smt
convince smb of smt
cure smb of smt
D
decide on / against
dedicate to
depend on
despair of
deter from
differ from
disagree with
disapprove of
discuss with
devote to
dream of / about
dress in
drink to
demand smt from smb
derive smt from smt
discourage smb from smt
distinguish smb/smt from/between smb/smt
distract smb from smt
E
elaborate on
emerge from
escape from
experiment on
excuse smb for smt
exchange smt for smt
exclude smt from smt
expel smb from smt
explain smt to smb
F
face with
feel like
feel about
fight against/with/for
forget about
forgive someone for something
G
guess at
get married to

get rid of
get tired of
grumble about
H
hear of / about
hide from
hope of / for
help smb with smt
hinder smb/smt from smt
I
impress on
insist on
insure against
interfere with / in
invest in
involve smb/smt in smb/smt
J
joke about
K
know about
L
laugh at/about
listen to
long for
lend smt to smb
M
meet with
mistake for
get married to
O
object to
operate on
P
participate in
pay for
persist in
pray for
prepare for
prohibit from
praise smb for smt
present smb with smt
prevent smb from smt
provide smb with smt
provide smt for smb
punish smb for smb
Q

quarrel about smt
quarrel with smb
R
react against / to
recon on
recover from
refer to
rely on
reply to
resign from
respond to
result in
retire from
room for
remind smb of smt
rob smb of smt
S
search for
see to
shout at
smile at
specialise in
speak to
stand for
stare at
stem from
subscribe to
substitute for
succeed in
suffer from
save smb from smt
sentence smb to smt
share smt with smb
subject smb to smt
suspect smb of smt
T
talk to
talk about
think of/about
turn to
tell smb about smt
thank smb for smt
translate smt into smt
trust smb with smt
U
use for
V
vote for

W
wait for
wonder at
work on
worry about
write to / about
warn smb about/against


Exercises

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